A Non-Spiritual Explanation for Spiritual Experiences

One of my favorite contemporary thinkers is a guy named Jordan Peterson. He’s mostly a psychologist and deals with a lot of work around “Archetypes”. Throughout our human evolution we have noticed characteristic patterns, and group those together into abstract mental images. So like when I say, The Trickster, you intuitively think of a set of characteristics that make up this archetype. Be it lying, stealing, joking around, etc. The evolutionary aspect is very important here. Not only have we evolved to understand archetypes of people but archetypes of events (birth, death, etc), and archetypes of myths, narratives and symbols (resurrection, The Hero’s Journey, lions as a symbol for strength, etc). Deep in out psychology there are “spiritual” symbols and experiences waiting to be tapped into when the moment is right. I don’t mean these things are ideas shared from a god or whatever. They can have purely physical explanations. One example Peterson brings up, is the commonality of symbols in ancient religions all around the world. Both European and South Americans cultures shared the symbol of a tree connecting heaven and earth, with a snake circling around it. Sometimes this included a hell aspect below the tree. The easiest explanation is to consider that most of our evolutionary history was literally that. Our ancestors lived in trees. The heaven of sorts was near the top of the tree. That’s where all the socialization and eating happened. With the ground of the tree being the dangerous place filled with snakes and lions. You can see how generations of animals evolving in these situations would start to develop these archetypal associations. The early animals that survived would have to have had instincts deep down inside them, that made them see the tree as good and the snakes below as risks. Any animal that didn’t would have been bread out of the gene pool pretty quick. These instincts would have obviously stuck around in our evolution. They become more of an abstract association. You don’t need to be presented with a reason for thinking of the world as a tree connected to heaven and hell. You just have to have the subconscious instincts. This offers up a pretty thorough explanation for a lot of spiritual phenomenon. When people enter into hallucinations, they often see the same symbols and archetypes as other people. Not because there are literal demons and ghosts to see. More because these ideas are deep in our psyche and can come out at times when they are triggered.
How exactly we trigger these spiritual things to come out is important to address. The human mind is very complex and still misunderstood. However I have some personal experiences and ideas that might help us flesh this out. I’ve had sessions of prayer that were so moving and powerful that it could be explained as spiritual. Moments that brought me to tears. I don’t think it was because I was actually interacting with God. A more simple explanation would be to write it off as just normal brain chemistry interactions. These moments only ever happened when there was psychological priming. It could be a lack of sleep from staying up late at night, causing my brain to amplify my emotions and induce minor hallucinations. If I already believe (and i did at the time) that God exists and that I’m interacting with him, then it makes sense that in a vulnerable mental state, I start to fill in the gaps of my experience with my assumptions on God. I’ve noticed too, that often spiritual experiences happen in spiritual places while doing spiritual things. Maybe you’re listening to a great worship song that is touching you deeply. You zone out into this song. You dance wildly, spinning in circles and doing repetitive, almost animalistic actions. Or maybe in a more traditional church you find yourself standing up and sitting down in rapid succession. What if these are the exact things that prime us to have intense feelings of being possessed by the holy spirit? Cults are well aware that they can trick people by psychological priming them to have spiritual experiences. In the 80’s there was a cult that almost took over a huge voting block in Oregon. The Rajneeshpuram. There’s a Netflix doc on this. It’s great and worth watching. The videos of their initiation process show people dancing wildly, screaming, singing and spinning in circles. This lowered a lot of their psychological barricades. Weakening the mind’s ability to tell fact from fiction. If followed by a sermon like lecture from a charming and wise old man, it makes sense were a defenseless mind might start to believe nearly anything said.
The mind is so sensitive. Even the chemical interaction of what food you eat that day, can have notable impacts on your psyche. Drugs like DMT can induce amazingly visual hallucinations tapping into the dreaming parts of your brain. Ingesting chemicals can be a simple explanation for a lot of spiritual phenomenon. If you dig around demonology reports, drugs are extremely common. People attempting to summon a demon almost always have ingested some sort of drug first.
If we can explain away an experience with basic psychology, why bother to complicate our metaphysics with things like gods and ghosts? With all these insights, it’s hard to see where there’s room left for legitimately spiritual experiences. When you have a spiritual experience, remain skeptical. Do no attribute to a God what could be easily explained with simple psychology.

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Toxic Masculinity is a Useful Concept

As is the problem with all politically charged language, Toxic Masculinity, is a concept that can be used in subtly different ways. Some seem to use Toxic Masculinity as a broad criticism of masculinity in general. They label all conceptions of manhood as toxic. A lot of people see this usage and totally write off the concept of Toxic Masculinity altogether. A reasonable position to take, if that was the only way to use the ideas. However, a more useful conception serves as a criticism of a specific corrupted type of masculinity. Let’s start by understanding where exactly this concept comes from. Back in the 80s, there was a group of male Jungians called the Mythopoetic Men’s Movement. Jungian psychology has an emphasis on mental archetypes. Particularly notable, are the archetypes that relate to gender. The MMM was concerned that masculinity was heading in a destructive direction, away from the ideal masculine archetypes. They coined this idea of Toxic Masculinity, in order to identify conceptions of masculinity that were… well… toxic. Some examples are masculinity that emphasizes violence in inappropriate situations. A tyrannical masculinity that abandons self-responsibility and seeks power and abuse for an irrational selfish gain. Michael Messner, a significant figure in this movement, once gave a lecture about how putting too much emphasis on the Warrior Archetype contributes to an epidemic of rape. This usage of Toxic Masculinity certainly has its merits. It helps us identify things that healthy masculinity should seek to criticize. It also prompts us to ponder the value in some of the Feminist criticism of male power in society. This isn’t the article to argue about the exact level of male dominance that is healthy. However, one can easily see where some institutions are incentivizing men to gain power through sociopathic means. Governments are the perfect example of this. A man who wants to gain political power over his community taps into dangerous tendencies. He learns to be dishonest and manipulative, wielding his masculine power of leadership in an unhealthy way.
For those worried that some people are completely abandoning masculinity, that’s a fine worry. The MMM was also concerned with men who lost touch with their masculinity and have became possessed by feminine archetypes. However, the language around Toxic Masculinity may just be the very thing that saves men from these negative behaviors. It is valuable to ponder on its use and ask what ways our own masculinity may be toxic.

For further exploration check out King, Warrior, Magicain, Lover, a book that dives deeper into masculine arehcetypes and healthy manhood.